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Infrastructure development: four lessons for managing stakeholders

Infrastructure projects entail a complex ecosystem of stakeholders that requires proactive management. Understanding the political economy and the needs and expectations of stakeholders is key to realising a project’s outcomes.

Failure to manage contextual risk and subjugation of the ‘people’ component within a project design, leads projects to fail.

AUTHOR: Africa Practice Group CEO, Marcus Courage

Our role in supporting some of the largest infrastructure projects over a period of more than 15 years, has exposed us to successes and failures in equal measure.

This article first appeared in Mining Review Africa Issue 10, 2019
Read the full digimag here or subscribe to receive a print copy here

We draw one simple conclusion from our experience – systematically engage with stakeholders throughout an infrastructure project’s lifecycle if you want to promote value and reduce risk.

Contextual risk

The capacity of a project to generate economic activity and deliver growth must be the primary consideration when assessing the viability of any project, but other factors such as affordability, inclusive development and environmental objectives need to be factored too.

Indeed, some of the most challenging risks faced by projects comes from the external operating environment, not the project itself.

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That’s why the International Finance Corporation (IFC) has developed new Environmental and Social (E&S) procedural requirements to make it easier to capture and present contextual risks and aggregate these into a coherent view.


Projects can only be considered successful when key stakeholders acknowledge they are a success. 

Smart project developers are sensitive to political priorities and economic cycles; they employ experienced professionals to manage politics and perception.

They understand that significant opportunities exist to influence stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations for the benefit of both the stakeholders and the project.

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Poor community relations can quickly filter up the chain of influence, threatening license to operate.

That’s why it’s critical to work the whole vertical – engaging with international development finance institutions, national governments, suppliers, contractors and the local community – to generate project support for a project at every level.

An example of this is dual-listed Base Resources’ Kwale mineral sands project in Kenya, which contributes more than 60% to the value of the country’s mining output. 

As the first sizeable mining investment in the country, infrastructure benefitting Kenya beyond life of mine was constructed. 

This included a US$30 million port facility with capacity to handle vessels of up to 60 000 tons, a 132 kV transmission line and power substation as well as access roads that would in future link the Tanzania-Mombasa highway.

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The scale of the infrastructure built required extensive consultation and engagement with the entire ecosystem of stakeholders at county and national level, more so in a country that had no history of large-scale mining.

Four steps for managing contextual risk

  1. Stakeholder-Centric: Design your project for mutual benefit (government, industry and community) and reflect this in your communications.
  2. Integrated Management: Employ professionals with skills and experience to institutionalize stakeholder management processes and integrate these at project inception.
  3. Predictive: Employ predictive risk assessment tools and techniques to monitor and anticipate contextual risk.
  4. Proactive: Engage proactively, ethically and effectively with critical stakeholders to manage expectations and perception.